When Kullervo met Araweelo

we could learn more about Nordic-Somali poetry, literature and storytelling

It was more than ten years ago when I had my first, unexpected contact with Somalian storytelling. I was working as a museum guide at Ateneum, Finnish National Art Gallery, and my task was to focus on the art related to Kalevala, which has the position as the Finnish national epos. Young pupils that had arrived to Finland from Somalia less than three years ago listened to the story of Kullervo, an unfortunate character, who cannot avoid causing destruction and pain whatever he tries to do, and finally ends up killing himself after accidentally sleeping with his sister. We looked at Akseli Gallen-Kallela’s painting Kullervon kirous (Kullervo’s curse) which depicts a furious teenage boy lifting his fist towards the sky, while a dog sniffs a half loaf of bread in his feet. According to the story, inside the bread there is a stone, and if you know this, you can distinguish it in the painting.
“These stories used to be sung,” I explained in a school visit related to the same program. “That was the way to remember them before they were written down. You can sing all the lines of this book,” I continued and sang some verses from a randomly opened Kalevala-book with a monotonous melody.
“Really?” asked one of the pupils looking at me incredulous. He wanted to open the book himself.
“Can you sing this one as well?” he continued.
“Yes. Anyone can, it´s very simple, just a few notes. You can try.” I answered and followed the lines with my finger while I sang.
“We have these stories too!” he said then.

After that he told me about a female queen who castrated all the men in her reign and about a girl who succeeded to escape her monstrous mother. The cannibal mother’s name was Dhegdheer and the queen was Araweelo. His Somalian-born classmates contributed to the story with details and started to argue about the correct version of the plot. I was fascinated by the enthusiasm and ability of these children to communicate their stories to me with their still very fresh Finnish language.

…through the stories and paintings related to this epos, we could form a bridge that connected two very distant worlds of stories.

To be honest, I had never been really a fan of Kalevala, even though in my job as a guide I told the stories with an enthusiasm that I wanted to offer for the museum visitors. The process of constructing the Finnish national identity has elements that make me feel uncomfortable. But now I truly found it interesting; through the stories and paintings related to this epos, we could form a bridge that connected two very distant worlds of stories. For this group, what impacted them most was the story of Kullervo, and the fact that all the stories could be sung.

The Nordic countries, especially Sweden, have become important areas of publishing literature in Somali language.

I guess that a similar feeling of touching a rich but invisible world, has happened to many people who have worked with initiatives related to Somalian storytelling and poetry in the Nordic countries and elsewhere in the Somali diaspora. Several literary scholars (eg. Ahmed Artan Hanghe, Bogumił W. Andrzejewski, Giorgi L. Kapchits) have written about the varied genres, their specific metrics, contents, performative contexts and other elements of Somalian poetry, storytelling and literature. Many collections of Somalian folktales have been done and are also available in English and/or in Nordic languages. Projects related to literary and/or Somali mother language education have created formats to continue, adapt and renew the Somalian storytelling traditions. Some of them have collected texts that have been published as books or online. Somali book fairs have been yearly traditions at least in Finland, Sweden, Canada and Britain apart of Hargeisa, and their close connection to worldwide distribution channels of Somali language literature shows interesting features of a unique, transnational literary field. The Nordic countries, especially Sweden, have become important areas of publishing literature in Somali language. The Swedish support system of literature has also permitted a rather wide publication activity of children’s books. Even easy-reading books and a children’s journal in Somali language are published in Sweden.

In the picture you see artwork as part of Storytelling courses in Somali language by Outi Korhonen
Storytelling courses in Somali language at Espoo libraries in 2011, part of the project Queen Araweelo’s bathing pond (Kuningatar Araweelon kylpylammikko). Teacher: Amiira Ismail. Photo: Outi Korhonen

It is not a field of roses. Many of the initiatives related to Somali language receive aggressive reactions from racist and xenophobic groups.

In many cases there has been a fertile dialogue between the expertise of Nordic Somali inhabitants and the literary, cultural or educational elements of the receiving country. These are echoes of the work that the diasporic Somali communities have done to develop and cultivate their literary tradition, both inside the Somali-speaking language community and in dialogue with the other inhabitants of the new home countries.

It is not a field of roses. Many of the initiatives related to Somali language receive aggressive reactions from racist and xenophobic groups.[1]

As the written Somali language is so young, established as late as in 1972, the oral forms of poetry have had an important role in preserving and forming the stories and their aesthetics. Maybe this was the reason why singing some verses of Kalevala attracted the pupils who first told me Somalian stories. Before having the written versions of poetry and literature, the relation between the author and the reader has been different, and I wonder whether something of that is still left in Somalian literary context. I refer to the collective nature of creation.

Professionalism is often understood as a synonym of good quality.

I may be wrong, but during the years I worked with art, culture politics and diversity, I had the feeling that from the lenses of the Finnish art field, there are difficulties in recognizing and appreciating collective forms of art creation. It is considered something less worthy. Our culture demands first of all professionalism—professional artists who do art as their profession and can prove that. Professionalism is often understood as a synonym of good quality. But when art is strongly rooted in the life of a community, the question of professionalism becomes complicated. Then, the question of quality is not a question of professionalism—these two words are not synonyms anymore. The question that should be asked is different, but I do not know what it should be. How does art contribute to the meaning of people’s lives? What do people do with art, what kind of importance does it have? What is quality?

What if the roles of the creator, performer, commentator, curator and audience would be different? Maybe the development towards more and more specific roles and expertise has also elements of loss and alienation. Maybe it would be possible to imagine an ambiguity, instability of roles, different from the ones that we are used to. Isn’t our art field often looking for changes like that anyway? But when there is art that does not respond to the fixed roles and structures of our own art fields, it often becomes invisible for us. Our measuring functions with the criteria of professionalism, as if professionalism would always be a synonym of quality.

There is internationally awarded contemporary literature created by Somali authors and there are individual creators that our art field needs as a proof for professionalism.

With these reflections I do not mean to insinuate that there would not be professionalism in the literary field of the Somali diaspora. Of course there is, there are professional writers, poets, editors, book fair organizers, etc. There is internationally awarded contemporary literature created by Somali authors and there are individual creators that our art field needs as a proof for professionalism. The most well-known among them is probably Nuruddin Farah, who switched his writing language from Somali to English to reach a wider audience and received the appreciated Neustadt prize for his production. Some of his books have been translated to Finnish and are at least occasionally read by literature students also in our universities[2].

But apart from that, there may also be a field of literary and poetic creation in Somali language that has collective elements. If I am not wrong and if these collective elements exist, in my opinion they should be considered very valuable.

Our time needs other protagonists.

I have followed a bit freely the flow of my thoughts. Though my title may have promised an encounter between Kullervo and Araweelo, it does not happen in this blog text. I could have imagined how the queen Araweelo castrates Kullervo, so that he´ll never sleep with his sister, and he does not have to kill himself for feeling too guilty. But no, I did not do it. They are characters of the past who do not respond to our needs to construct the story of our time. Our time needs other protagonists. We are more interested in seeing who they are and what will happen between them. Knowing that in the past of our worlds of stories, an imaginary encounter could have changed the course of history, may still create connections that find their personifications in the stories of future and our time.    


In the picture you see Outi Korhonen
Outi Korhonen
Photo: Sergio Prudant

Outi Korhonen is an art educator who worked for years with projects related to multilingualism and cultural diversity in the arts field, e.g. coordinating Multilingual Month. In her projects as regional artist for cultural diversity (2011-2014), she facilitated also projects related to storytelling in Somali language. Now she has returned to teach visual arts for children and youth, assuming the need to restart learning things from the beginning every day.

Projects related to Somali language in this page: https://multilingualmonth.org/tag/somali/
A blog text related to Nordic-Somali book fair in Pasila: Encounters of language and poetry at Nordic Somali Festival (https://multilingualit.org/2016/12/12/nordic-somali-festival/)

[1] A Swedish writer Oscar Trimbel cancelled the distribution of his bilingual Swedish-Somali children’s book Farfar har fyra fruar at Göteborg book fair after being threatened by racist groups. I myself received insults with sexual contents in an online magazine’s discussion in 2011 after I had written a reader’s opinion in Helsingin Sanomat (the biggest Finnish newspaper) about the need to have Somali language teaching in any Finnish university when there was none. The text was written with the director of Finland-Somalia association, who was so used to being insulted that he only laughed at the comments he received, though they were much worse than the ones I got. This made me understand how different positions we have in my country.

[2] Nuruddin Farah’s book Maps (Karttoja) became familiar to me when I studied literature at Helsinki University. It was included in the reading programme of a course of literary analyses.


Digital learning and playing space in Somali for children

Finnish National Agency for education (Opetushallitus) has published a new, playful learning platform to support Somali mother language teaching at schools. The platform is open for all and it includes alphabet exercises, short stories, songs and interactive vocabulary exercises for children between ages of 5 and 13.

Multilingual Month congratulates the creators of this excellent learning platform!

We tested the platform as non-Somali speakers and noticed that the platform offers a possibility also for non-Somali speakers to learn basic things about Somali language in a fun way.


Somali language learning material from Finnish National Agency for Education


Previous Somali language material (2014) from the Finnish National Agency for Education

(Tip: if you have problems with entering the 2014 platform, you can pass the username and password request with any word)



Pictures in this post: screenshots from the learning platform; Copyright: Finnish National Agency for Education

NordicSom brings new insights to bilingualism in Finland together with Svenska nu

Text: Ahmed Hassan and Konsta Savolainen
Translated from Finnish into English by Outi Korhonen

In the activities of NordicSom we focus on constructing issue-based Nordic collaboration in such a manner that ethnic background does not define the activities. Understanding the significance of multilingualism is one possible channel to influence. In this context our partner Svenska nu motivates and inspires Finnish youth to use Swedish language and to promote multilingualism and the visibility of bilingualism. The people behind Svenska nu want to contribute to the awareness about the ability to speak languages as a significant societal question. We want to include people with migrant background in this work.

Our work in promoting bilingualism or multilingualism from the point of view of immigrants has brought up many positive and inspiring experiences among the youth, when they hear about learning Swedish from a different angle.

Ahmed Hassan from NordicSom visits schools giving lectures about his own school years in a Swedish-speaking school and describes his efforts and successes in learning the language. He tells about amusing coincidences of his life and emphasizes that you must rely on yourself and use the opportunities that the Finnish society offers. We are all Finnish and Nordic, and it can be very important for a person with migrant background to be able to speak Swedish.

Multilingualism is part of today’s work life, as we live in a world influenced by globalization. Multilingualism is needed also in encountering people from different cultural backgrounds with their challenges and possibilities. It can open possibilities that otherwise remain unreachable. Discovering this is rewarding. Different visions offered by different languages support each other especially in team work.

Our work in promoting bilingualism or multilingualism from the point of view of immigrants has brought up many positive and inspiring experiences among the youth, when they hear about learning Swedish from a different angle. The successes in learning a language are important and they compensate the challenging side of learning. When a person with immigrant background that does not fit in the stereotypical image of a Swedish-speaker in Finland, succeeds in learning the language, it gives reasons for others, too, to rely on their ability to learn and develop their capacities. Our perception is that a positive change has occurred in the confidence among the youth in using Swedish and in their attitude towards learning it.

The official bilingualism of Finland is a richness. Apart from this, immigrants have good opportunities to develop their mother language at school, which is not evident in many other countries. We believe that by understanding the weight of multilingualism as part of the structures of the Finnish society, immigrants have more possibilities to use the opportunities given by our society and to contribute to the development of its future.

The writers of this text, Ahmed Hassan and Konsta Savolainen work for the employment of immigrants in a company founded by them. Through NordicSom they want to contribute to the development of the Nordic Somali community’s members as active participants in societal processes.

Translation from Finnish into English: Outi Korhonen

What Language do You Speak – documentary film and discussion

Film Screening at Stoa,
Turunlinnantie 1, Helsinki
6.3. 2018 at 18:00
short discussion after the film with the director and audience at 19:00

(In case you are interested in showing the film in another context, please ask for the director’s contact from Multilingual Month.)

The documentary film What Language Do You Speak? shows the universal nature of the identity defined by language.
The director of the film, Elisa Bracher from Brazil, will arrive to Finland to participate in the screening. After the film screening we’ll share experiences about multilingual contexts with Elisa, who also runs a children´s art education center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Welcome to contribute!

Description of the film:
Children and adults who have had to adapt to an environment where their own language is not understandable, tell about their experiences in e.g. Brazil, Britain and India. Each experience is unique, but learning the language appears to be the key to being treated as an equal.

“At that time people didn’t understand us. Kids would laugh at you in class, if you said the wrong thing, or if you spoke differently. Because of that there was no other option than to stay quiet. And you had to try hard, try hard to be invisible”
(Girl from Somalia, migrated to Britain)

Brasil 2017, 65 min
Director Elisa Bracher
Main Language Portuguese, English texts. The film includes interviews or fragments also in English, Somali and many other languages.
Tue 6.3.2018 at 18.00
Stoa, Musiikkisali
Turunlinnantie 1, Itäkeskus , Helsinki
Free entry

Elisa Bracher will be interviewed by Outi Korhonen

A new dictionary series promotes integration and cultural exchange

Husein Muhammed

The Finnish Institute for the Languages of Finland (Kotus) is preparing a new dictionary series for speakers of mainly migrant languages.

The dictionary includes some 30 000 Finnish entries with their equivalents in other languages. In addition to the basic Finnish vocabulary, the dictionary includes words, phrases and institutions relevant to immigration and integration issues, for instance “Maahanmuuttovirasto” (Finnish Immigration Authority), “oleskelulupa” (residence permit) and “kotoutumiskoulutus” (integration training).

The dictionary goes well beyond only providing Finnish entries with their equivalents in each of the target languages. The dictionary provides information on which parts of speech the entry belongs to as well as on how the word is inflected. Vast majority of entries include also examples, often more than one.

The main targeted group of users of the dictionary series are migrants who have settled in Finland and want to learn the Finnish language and culture. Special attention has been paid to words and phrases essential in dealing with different authorities, be they from the Finnish Immigration Authority, social office, municipal health center or NewCo Helsinki advising new start-ups.

Aamu substantiivi KS
subax, aroor

aamu sarastaa
waagu wuu soo beryayaa
tänä aamuna paistoi aurinko
saaka qorrax baa jirtey
lähden aamulla
aroortii baan baxayaa
eilen aamulla satoi
shalay subax roob baa da’ay
hän ajaa parran joka aamu
subax walba garka wuu iska xiiraa
tavataanko heti aamusta?
isla subaxa horeba ma kulannaa?

But traditional Finnish culture has not been neglected either. The dictionary includes also entries like “sauna” (traditional Finnish bath) and other words related to sauna, for instance “kiuas” (sauna stove) and “löyly” (sauna steam or pressure).

The dictionary’s aimed groups include not only beginners of the Finnish language, but also, among others, interpreters and translators as well as second generation migrants who want to maintain their native language. The dictionary can also be helpful in culture exchange via, for example, helping to translate literature between Finnish and the other languages of the dictionary series.

The project began with translating the dictionary into the Somali language. The second language in the row is Kurdish, more specifically Kurmanji or Northern Kurdish. But translating the dictionary into other languages has also been planned. The main criteria for choosing target languages is that the language has a substantial amount of speakers, mainly migrants, in Finland but no good dictionaries are available in Finnish and the language in question.

The Finnish entries are usually simply provided with their equivalents in the target language, but not all entries have exact equivalents. Then the entries are given various definitions in the target language.

The dictionary series is theoretically one-sided, i.e. only Finnish words are provided as entries in an alphabetical order, but not the words of the other language of the dictionary. However, thanks to the new technology, one can also search words of the other language and find them if the word is given as an equivalent of one or more Finnish words in the dictionary. Thus, the dictionary is quite useful for searching both Finnish words and words of the other language of the dictionary.

Currently, Finnish-Somali dictionary is partly available with Finnish entries alphabetically from the beginning of the letter A until “röykkiö” (heap, huddle). The Kurdish dictionary, too, will soon be partly available on the Internet, in the first phase likely from the beginning of the A to “möyhentää” (to fluff).

Users can search for words not only beginning but also including or ending in a certain letter or syllable.

The dictionary can be used free of charge on: http://kaino.kotus.fi/somali/?p=main

Husein Muhammed is a lawyer, translator and journalist, who has worked in many institutions related to migration, refugees and human rights. Currently he also works as an editor of the Kurdish dictionary at The Finnish Institute for the Languages of Finland (Kotus) and with a report about Nordic-Kurdish literature for Culture for All / Norden2020. He has written a book Yhtä erilaiset – islam ja suomalainen kulttuuri (Teos 2011) about islam and Finnish culture and many articles and columns to different newspapers and magazines.


Tema morsmål – support for multilingual education

Tema Morsmål is a website that offers resources to support different mother tongues and multilingual work in child care, mother tongue education and bilingual education in schools.

It offers learning resources in a wide variety of mother tongues for all employees in kindergartens and schools, focusing especially on multilingual staff in kindergartens, mother tongue teachers, bilingual teachers and teachers in special Norwegian schools and for minority language children and parents.

Tema Morsmål communicates current information about native language and multilingualism, both nationally and internationally, from research environments to educational practice and builds networks for the site’s current audiences.

The website’s main language is Norwegian but it has also versions in Arabic , in Dari, in Sorani Kurdish, in Lithuanian, in Pashto, in Persian, in Polish, in Russian, in Somali, in Spanish, in Tamil, in Thai, in Tigrinya, in Turkish and in Urdu.

Somali Nordic Culture promotes reading and writing in Somali

Somali Nordic Culture is an association located in Sweden. It works to increase interest towards Somali Culture organizing events and festivals, activities for children, film and theater presentations and promotes reading and writing in Somali language. Nordic Somali Culture publishes a children’s magazine Carruurterna (Our children) in Somali language that is distributed to more than 100 libraries in Sweden.

The members are reading promoters, students, writers, storytellers, librarians, journalists and artists.


In Swedish

Somali Nordic Culture är en kulturell  och ideell förening som är partipolitiskt och religiöst obunden. Föreningen består av läsfrämjare, studenter, författare, sagoberättare, bibliotekarier, journalister och konstnärer. Somali Nordic Culture grundades 2011 och föreningens verksamhet riktar sig till barn, ungdomar och vuxna och till både kvinnor och män.

Somali Nordic Culture har som syfte:

  • Att öka intresset för den Somaliska kulturen genom att hålla kulturföreställningar, barn aktiviteter, kulturfestivaler och film och teateruppvisningar.
  • Att väcka intresse för det skrivna ordet. Att hålla seminarier om ny utgivna litteratur där man träffar och diskuterar med författarna. Målet är att öka intresset för läsning av böcker på olika språk samt re-censera och diskutera kring dem.
  •  Att utveckla elevers kunskap och förståelse av utbildningen. Vi ordnar läxhjälp för grundskola och gymnasieskola elever. Målet är Att den svensk-somaliska gruppens utbildningsnivå höjs avsevärt för att förbättra förutsättningarna för dem att lyckas i  samhället.
  • Att integrera nyanlända somalier genom samhällsinformation och stöd i tidigt skede för att motverka utanförskap.

Nypon förlag – lättläst också på andra språk

Nypon förlag is a publishing house located in Helsingborg, Sweden, specialized in books that are easy to read (lättläst/ selkokieli). It publishes books mainly in Swedish but also in other languages, either as bilingual or monolingual publications. The languages of the collection  include Arabic, Dari, English, French, German,  Meänkieli, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Somali, Spanish, Swedish and Tigrinya.   

The mission of Nypon förlaget is that all the children have an opportunity to become great readers, develope their language(s), imagination, the pleasure of reading and thus their learning skills.

Sivuvalo – Is This Finnish Literature?

Sivuvalo project is a creative platform for writers who write in other than the two national languages in Finland. It offers information about transnational writers, edits publications and organizes multimedia poetry readings, workshops and other artistic collaborations.

The coordinator of the project is Peruvian poet Roxana Crisólogo and the producer of “Mutant Language” multimedia poetry evenings  is Mexican poet and designer Daniel Malpica.

Sivuvalo´s website also includes a wide link list of writers who write in different languages in Finland.
Among them there are writers who write in Arabic, Burmese, English, Icelandic, Kurdish, Persian, Russian, Northern Sámi, Somali and Spanish.


Multilingual Library, Helsinki, Finland

The Multilingual Library is located in Pasila Library, Helsinki and its collections cover over 80 languages. Customers living outside of Helsinki can order all materials to their local libraries around Finland.

The Multilingual library also hosts a blog about current topics related to literature and multilingualism. The blog has blogs in English and occasionally in other languages, e.g. in Somali, Persian and Arabic.

Customers who cannot find their own language among the language collection can suggest items to add to the collection.

In the book collection you find books at least in the following languages:

Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bengali, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Bulgarian, Burmese, Byelorussian, Catalan,  Chinese,  Czech, Danish, Dari, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Faroese, Finnish, French, Galician, German, Greek,  Greenlandic, Gujarati,  Hebrew,  Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Karelian, Khmer, Komi, Korean, Kurdish, Latin, Latvian, Lingala, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Mari, Nepalese, Norwegian, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romani, Romanian, Russian, Sanskrit, Sámi, Sign language, Slovakian, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Tagalog, Tamili, Tatar, Telugu,  Thai, Tigrinya,  Turkish,  Ukrainian,  Urdu, Vietnamese and Yiddish

The mother languages of the permanent staff at Pasila Library, which is the physical location of Multilingual Library, include Finnish, Swedish, English, Russian, Estonian and Somali.